A fracture is a broken bone. A bone may be completely fractured or partially fractured in any number of ways (crosswise, lengthwise, in multiple pieces).
A fracture often requires emergency treatment at a hospital.Before transporting the person, protect the injured area to avoid further damage. For broken arm or leg bones, put a splint (made of wood, plastic, metal, or another rigid material padded with gauze) against the area to prevent movement; loosely wrap the splint to the area using gauze. If there is bleeding, apply pressure to stop bleeding before splinting, then elevate the fracture.
Fractured bones must be set in their proper place and held there in order to heal properly. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Repositioning bone without surgery is "closed reduction." Most fractures in children are treated with closed reduction. Serious fractures may require open reduction -- repositioning using surgery. In some cases, devices such as pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fracture in place. Open fractures must also be cleaned thoroughly to avoid infection.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the joints. It can be painful and may cause your joints (fingers, knees, hips, and others) to become inflamed or swollen. OA happens when the soft and rubbery articular cartilage that covers the ends of your bones wears away. That causes them to rub against each other when the joint is moved. The condition occurs mostly in older people because it's one that develops with wear and tear over many years. You're also more likely to have OA if you're obese, have relatives who have it, or have had a previous joint injury. Once you're diagnosed with OA, your doctor may tell you to try lifestyle changes like exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, pain medicine, or natural remedies. But, if these don't work, he may suggest surgery.
Arthroscopy (also called arthroscopic surgery) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure on a joint in which an examination and sometimes treatment of damage is performed using an arthroscope, an endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision. Arthroscopic procedures can be performed to evaluate or treat many orthopaedic conditions including torn cartilage (known by health professionals as "meniscus"), torn surface (articular) cartilage, ACL reconstruction, and trimming damaged cartilage.
A pediatric orthopaedist is the best-trained and most experienced doctor to properly evaluate and treat musculoskeletal (bone, joint, or muscle) problems in a child who is still growing. This includes newborn babies through teenagers.
Pediatric orthopaedic surgeons choose to make the care of children the focus of their medical practice. The unique nature of medical and surgical care of children is learned from advanced training and experience in practice.